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Table 5 Examples of different general spectral vegetation indices and disease-specific vegetation indices used to detect and measure severity of various plant disease

From: From visual estimates to fully automated sensor-based measurements of plant disease severity: status and challenges for improving accuracy

TypeNameParameter / DiseaseCalculationaReference
General spectral vegetation indicesNormalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)Chlorophyll(R800-R670)/(R800 + R670)Rouse et al. (1974) Tucker et al. (1991)
Plant Senescence Reflectance Index (PSRI)Pigment content, Senescence(R680-R500)/R750Merzlyak et al. (1999)
Carotenoid Reflectance Index (CAR1)Carotenoids1/R510–1/R550Gitelson et al. (2002)
Anthocyanin Reflectance Index (ARI)Anthocyanins/Yellow rust (wheat)1/R510–1/R700Gitelson et al. (2001) Zheng et al. (2018)
Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)Photosynthesis, Carotenoids/Yellow rust (wheat)(R570-R531)/(R570 + 531)Gamon et al. (1992) Zheng et al. (2018)
Normalized Difference Spectral Index (NDSI)Leaf spot diseases (peanut)(R800 − R670)/(R800 + R670)Rouse et al. (1974) Chen et al. (2019)
Disease-specific vegetation indicesCercospora Leaf Spot Index (CLSI)Cercospora leaf spot (sugar beet)(R698-R570/(R698 + R570)-R734Mahlein et al. (2013)
Sugar Beet Rust Index (SBRI)Sugar beet rust (sugar beet)(R570 − R513)/(R570 + R513) + (1/2*R704)Mahlein et al. (2013)
Powdery Mildew Index (PMI)Powdery mildew (sugar beet)(R520 − R584)/(R520 + R584) + R724Mahlein et al. (2013)
Leaf Rust Disease Severity Index 1 (LRDSI_1)Brown rust (wheat)6.9*(R605/R455)-1.2Ashourloo et al. (2014)
Leaf Rust Disease Severity Index 2 (LRDSI_2)Brown rust (wheat)4.2*(R695/R455)-3.8Ashourloo et al. (2014)
Red Edge Disease Stress Index (REDSI)Yellow rust (wheat)(705–665)*(R783 − R665) − (783–665)*(R705 − R665)2 × R665Zheng et al. (2018)
Lemon Myrtle-Myrtle Rust Index (LMMRI)Myrtle rust (myrtle)(R545/R555)5/3*R1505/R2195Heim et al. (2019)
  1. aRi: indicates reflectance at waveband i