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Table 1 Closterovirids with their origin, natural hosts, transmission vectors, diverse modes of infection, and disease epidemiology

From: Viral suppressors from members of the family Closteroviridae combating antiviral RNA silencing: a tale of a sophisticated arms race in host-pathogen interactions

Genus Species Origin Natural hosts Vector Mixed infection Disease epidemiology References
Ampelovirus AiPoV1 Florida, USA Dioscorea bulbifera Pseudococcidae DVM It causes mild disease symptoms in isolated conditions, while co-infection may also result in synergistic effects, creating additional symptomology. Environmental factors promising to vector population dynamics result in disease epidemics Dey et al. (2019)
BVBaV Mississippi, USA Blackberry, Beta vulgaris Pseudococcus maritimus BYVaV, BVY, BPYV, BCRV, INSV, TRSV The impact of BVBaV longevity and quality attributes has been documented in several blackberry cultivars. Rapid disease spread was observed in the affected areas, causing significant losses Thekke-Veetil et al. (2013)
GLRaV-1 Australia Vitis vinifera, V. rotundifolia Pseudococcidae, Coccidae GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4, GLRaV-5, GLRaV-9, GLRaV-13, GLRaV-Cn Grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) spreads through grafting and vectors, causing about 60% of the losses in grapes production globally. Resistant cultivars and insect vector management reduce the disease impact significantly Martelli et al. (2012) and Naidu et al. (2014)
GLRaV-3 Australia V. vinifera (Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Barbera) Pseudococcidae, Coccoidea GRSPaV, GVA, GVB It is considered as a main etiological agent contributing to GLRD, consistently affecting vine health and crop production economically over the lifespan of a vineyard when no intervention strategies are implemented Maree et al. (2013)
GLRaV-4 Australia V. vinifera Planococcus ficus, Ceroplastes rusci GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4, GLRaV-Cn, GLRaV-13 In ampelovirus disease epidemics, the diversity, morphology, fecundity, and transmission efficiency of a vector species in a specific grapevine-growing area have significant epidemiological consequences Naidu et al. (2014)
GLRaV-13 Japan V. vinifera Pseudococcidae, Coccoidea GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3 Its infection causes severe mortality due to graft incompatibility in nurseries and vineyards, and delayed or irregular ripening which can affect harvest timing and crop production up to 50% Ito and Nakaune (2016)
LChV2 Australia Prunus Avium, P. cerasus Phenacoccus aceris, Pseudococcus maritimus LChV1, LChV-2/USA6a, LChV-2/USA6b It is a primary causal agent of little cherry disease (LCD). In British Columbia and Canada, a region that borders Washington State, LChV2 was reported at an epidemic level, resulting in 90% losses of marketable sweet cherry production between 1947 and 1979. Vector magnitude, grafting, and sample transportation are the main epidemiological consequences Rott and Jelkmann (2005) and Mekuria et al. (2014)
PMWaV-1, PMWaV-2, PMWaV-3 Hawaii, USA Ananas comosus Dysmicoccus brevipes, D. neobrevipes PMWaV-2, PMWaV-3, PMWaV-1 PMWaV-1 is a causal agent of Mealybug wilt of pineapple disease (MWPD). Plants affected by MWPD were infected by both PMWaV-3 and PMWaV-2, indicating that a complex of ampeloviruses may be widespread in Cuban pineapple fields. Favourable environmental conditions for vector population dynamics result in disease epidemics. Implement certification procedures for pineapple propagation materials and various cultivars to reduce the economic impact of MWPD on pineapple crops in Cuba and all over the world Sether and Hu (2002), Hernández-Rodríguez et al. (2017) and Dey et al. (2018)
PBNSPaV USA Prunus salicina, P. persica, P. avium, P. dulcis, P. armeniaca Not reported CVA, CNRMV, CGRMV, LChV-1 PBNSPaV has high epidemiological consequences because of the large number of hosts. In mixed infection conditions, it causes severe economic losses globally. Certification of propagation materials can reduce the economic impact of disease Sabanadzovic et al. (2005) and Salleh et al. (2011)
Closterovirus BYSV California, USA Beta vulgaris, Chenopodium capitatum, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Geraniaceae, Portulacaceae, Solanaceae Nasonovia lactucae, Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae BYV, BtMV, BWYV BYSV incidence is very high during prolonged dry conditions if plants are infected with other viruses. Epidemics of disease have been reported in rows adjacent to the sowthistle-infested area, but progressively decrease with increasing distance from the virus source Karasev et al. (1998)
BYV M. persicae, Aphis fabae, Rhopalostphum padi, Macrostphum rosae BWYV, BMV, BCTV, BChV, BMYV, BtMV BYV infection decreases 20–35% of crop production and has epidemic consequences for yield loss under co-infection conditions with BWYV and BMV. It also increases beet plant susceptibility to infection by several pathogenic fungi and BCTV Kirk et al. (1991) and Wintermantel (2005)
CNFV Japan Dianthus caryophyllus, D. barbatus, Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv., White Snowdon M. persicae, A. craccivoraA. gossypii CarMV, TAV, TSWV, CVB It has caused severe disease in carnation crops, particularly in mixed infections with other viruses. The virus was reported to have about 14% disease incidence in California, USA, in 1983. In general, high levels of crop hygiene, including vector control and resistant cultivars, have reduced the virus incidence Raikhy et al. (2003) and Mitiouchkina et al. (2018)
CYLV Daucus carota L., Heracleum sphondylium L., Beet roots Cavariella aegopodii, C. archangelicae, C. theobaldi, C. pastinacae CtRLV, CMoV, CtRLVaRNA, PYFV CYLV is a causal pathogen of carrot internal necrosis, causing the incidence of necrosis by 96%. Favorable climatic conditions for vector populations and viral sources are the main consequences of CYLV disease epidemiology Adams et al. (2014)
CTV Florida, USA Citrus sinensis, C. reticulata Blanco, C. paradisi Macf., C. aurantifolia (Christm.), C. limon (L.) Burn. f Toxoptera citricida, A. gossypii CDVd, CTV isolates (CTV9R-MCA13NR, T30-1) The most devastating tristeza epidemics occurred in Argentina (1930), Brazil (1937), California (1939), Florida (1951), Spain (1957), Israel (1970), and Venezuela (1980), but significant outbreaks have also been reported from Cyrus (1989), Cuba (1992), Mexico (1995), Dominican Republic (1996), and Italy (2002). The certification of bud-stock and the planting of resistant rootstock are major counter-measures in combating the disease Moreno et al. (2008)
GLRaV -2 North America V. vinifera L., V. rotundifolia, V. aestivalis Not reported GLRaV-3, GLRaV-1, GLRaV-4, GLRaV-13, GLRaV-Cn It plays a significant role in GLRD epidemics through grafting and causes severe losses in grape production globally. Rootstocks and bud treatment as well as resistant cultivars, reduced the disease impact significantly Maree et al. (2013) and Naidu et al. (2014)
MV-1 USA Golden ginger, Ginger, Mint Ovatus crataegarius SLRSV, TRSV, MV-2 In a solitary condition, MV-1 has less epidemiological impact than other viruses. Although under co-infections and suitable environmental conditions, this virus displays striking yellow vein banding symptoms on Variegata plants Tzanetakis et al. (2005a)
RLMV UK Raspberry, Blackberry, Red raspberry Amphorophora agathonica Hottes RMoV, RLSV, RpLV, RYNV, BRNV Its synergistic interactions with RMoV, RpLV, RYNV, and BRNV resulted in black raspberry decline (BRD) and raspberry mosaic disease (RMD) epidemics Tzanetakis et al. (2007) and Quito-Avila et al. (2014)
RLRaV Canada Rosa multiflora Thunb, Rosa rugosa Thunb Not reported ASGV, BCRV, PNRSV The most destructive disease of commercial roses is a wild rose leaf rosette disease (WRLRD), primarily caused by RLRaV, resulting in severe epidemics with ASGV, BCRV, and PNRSV He et al. (2015)
SCFaV Western coast of North, America Fragaria × ananassa Duch., F. vesca, F. virginiana A. gossypii SPaV, BPYV Strawberry decline (SD) is characterized by plant collapse and death associated with SCFaV in mixed infection of SPaV and BPYV. Favorable meteorological factors and vector populations resulted in 100% crop losses Tzanetakis and Martin (2008)
TV1 Hertfordshire, Lanarkshire Nicotiana tabacum, Solanum lycopersicum Not reported TMV, TVBMV, TSV TV1 causes enation mosaic in tomato and tobacco plants with TMV, TSV, and TVBMV. This virus has high biological consequences Wang et al. (2016a)
Crinivirus AYV USA (Illinois) Abutilon theophrasti Medic., Anoda abutiloides A. Gray, Malvaceae T. abutilonea Haldeman Not reported It is a whitefly-transmitted virus. Suitable meteorological factors for the vector population lead to a wide spread of disease Tzanetakis et al. (2013)
BnYDV Spain Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., Lens culinaris Medik., Vicia faba L. Bemisia tabaci (Q‐biotype) BYMV, BLRV BnYDV is a serious disease of beans. Its incidence increased from 34 to 50% in bean‐growing greenhouses from 2004 to 2005 in Spain Martín et al. (2011)
BPYV California, USA Cucumis sativus, C. melo, Amaranthus retroflexus, Selosia cristata, Sonchus oleraceus T. vaporariorum CYSDV, CCYV, CABYV, SPaV BPYV, together with CYSDV and CABYV, causes yellowing disease in the Cucurbitaceae family. Epidemics of disease are associated with its large host range, high light intensity, and vector population Boubourakas et al. (2006)
BYVaV North and South Carolina, USA Blackberry, Raspberry T. abutilonea, T. vaporariorum BVY, INSV, BVE, BCRV Blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD) is a destructive disease of blackberries in the USA, caused by BYVaV in combination with several viruses. This virus appears to be the most prevalent and needs more attentions to its epidemiology Poudel et al. (2013)
CYSDV United Arab Emirates Cucurbitaceae B. tabaci (biotypes A, B), B. argentifolii BPYV, CABYV It causes yellowing disease in the Cucurbitaceae family in association with BPYV and CABYV. That has recently become a devastating production threat in cucurbit-growing regions of Mexico, southern USA, and Central America Boubourakas et al. (2006)
DVCV Virginia, USA Diodia virginiana L., Rubiaceae T. abutilonea, T. vaporariorum Not Reported Disease epidemics in the vicinity of infected crops are characterized by vector population dynamics. DVCV has fewer biological consequences than other viruses Tzanetakis et al. (2011)
LChV California, USA Lactuca sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Phaseolus vulgaris B. tabaci (A, B biotypes) LIYV In co-infection with LIYV, it causes yellowing disease on lettuce and sugarbeet. A disease epidemic was recorded in the southwest desert region of the USA because of its wide host range and vector population Kubota and Ng (2016)
LIYV USA Lactuca sativa, Beta vulgaris, Cucumis melo, Daucus carota, Citrullus lanatus B. tabaci (biotype A) LChV LIYV infected various autumn-planted vegetable crops (lettuce, sugarbeets, crucifers, and cucurbits). In the early 1980s, 100% of susceptible plants were affected, resulting in $20 million crop losses in a single growing season Medina et al. (2005)
PYVV Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru Genera; Solanum, Polygonum, Rumex, Tagetes, Catharanthus, Malva T. vaporariorum PVY, ToCV, TICV In various regions of Colombia, epidemiological surveys for potato yellow vein disease (PYVD) indicated Polygonum spp., Polygonum mepalense, Rumex obtusifolium, Tagetes spp., and Catharanthus roseus as potential viral reservoirs Muñoz Baena et al. (2017)
SPaV USA Fragaria × ananassa Duch. T. vaporariorum BPYV Strawberry pallidosis disease (PD), exhibiting decline symptoms in strawberries, is characterized by a mixed infection of SPaV and BPYV. The disease epidemic was reported during 2002–2003 in California, causing about 50-million-dollar losses in two seasons Tzanetakis et al. (2006)
SPCSV Sub-Saharan, Africa Ipomoea batatas L., I. setosa, I. acuminata, I. hederacea, I. hederifolia B. tabaci (biotype B), T. vaporariorum, B. afer sensu lato SPFMV, SPMSV, SPMMV It is an extremely destructive virus that causes yield loss, resistance breaking in sweet potato to SPFMV, and the combined infection causes a devastating severe sweet potato virus disease (SPVD) Kreuze et al. (2002)
TVCV South Korea Chelidonium majus Not reported Not reported A valuable herbaceous plant, Chelidonium majus, has undergone a serious viral threat because of TVCV. Epidemiological and biological consequences of this virus still need to be reported Zhao et al. (2015)
ToCV Florida, USA Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum tuberosum, Capsicum annuum, Physalis philadelphica B. tabaci (biotype A, B, Q), T. abutilonea, T. vaporariorum TICV, ToSRV, TYLCV ToCV and TICV are quarantine pathogens that cause yellow leaf disorder disease with TYLCV to agricultural crops in Florida (USA) and around the world. Disease epidemic has been reported in South Africa in whitefly-infested crops. Meteorological factors favoring vector and mixed infection of these viruses have significant epidemiological consequences Wintermantel et al. (2009) and Tzanetakis et al. (2013)
TICV California, USA T. vaporariorum ToCV, ToSRV, TYLCV
Velarivirus APV1 Hainan, China Areca catechu L. Not reported Not reported It causes a serious yellow leaf disease (YLD) of Areca palm, characterized by yellowing of leaves in the inner whorl and progressively extending to the outer whorl of the crown Yu et al. (2015)
CoV-1, CoV-2, CoV-3, CoV-4 Hawaii, USA Cordyline fruticosa L. CoV-1, CoV-2, CoV-3, CoV-4, LChV-1, GLRaV-7 These viruses cause ti ringspot disease (TRD) in mixed infection conditions. TRD was reported in commercial and residential ti plants harboring multiple velariviruses on the islands of Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii Melzer et al. (2013a; b)
GLRaV-7 Albania V. vinifera GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3 GLRaV-7 plays a vital role in GLRD expression in association with other GLRaVs, contributing 40% economic loss to grape production Jelkmann et al. (2012) and Martelli et al. (2012)
LChV1 Japan Prunus avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb LChV1, LChV2 Little cherry disease (LCD) is a serious concern for sweet cherry producers globally. Disease epidemics occurred in Canada and Washington State in 1938 and 1940s, respectively, resulting in significant acreage eradication Wang et al. (2016b)
Unassigned AcV-1 Italy Actinidia chinensis, A. deliciosa PZSV, AcVA, AcVB This virus is a serious threat to the kiwifruit in China, Italy, New Zealand, and Chile. It is characterized by chlorotic and necrotic rings on leaves followed by general decline and death of the scion but not of the rootstock Blouin et al. (2018)
BVA Michigan, USA Vaccinium corymbosum, V. ashei Aphidoidea BlSSV, BLMoV It causes a devastating threat to blueberry production in association with other viruses. Infected planting material is a major source of disease epidemics. Blueberry certification programs have minimized the impact of disease Isogai et al. (2013)
MVBaV Oregon, USA Mentha × gracilis Ovatus crataegarius MVX Mint has great importance for its unique fragrance, food, medical industry, and ornamentals. MVBaV adversely affects this crop and deteriorates its commercial characteristics Tzanetakis et al. (2005b)
OLYaV Mediterranean Olea Europaea L. It has been found with the highest incidence of 93.8% in California. In Southern Italian regions, OLYaV-infected olive trees have also been detected (60% in Sicily and 86% in Calabria) in a large number of cultivars (positive/tested 35/50 and 18/25, respectively) Fontana et al. (2019)
PeVB Japan Diospyros virginiana L., D. kaki Thunb. PeVB is a serious disease of American and Japanese persimmon, influencing the vigor, production, and quality of fruits Ito et al. (2015)
  1. AcV-1 Actinidia virus 1, AcVA Actinidia virus A, AcVB Actinidia virus B, AiPoV1 Air potato ampelovirus 1, APV1 Areca palm velarivirus 1, ASGV Apple stem grooving virus, AWSV Alligatorweed stunting virus, AYV Abutilon yellows virus, BChV Beet chlorosis virus, BCRV Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus, BCTV Beet curly top virus, BLRV Bean leafroll virus, BMV Brome mosaic virus, BMYV Beet mild yellowing virus, BnYDV Bean yellow disorder virus, BPYV Beet pseudo‐yellows virus, BRNV Black raspberry necrosis virus, BtMV Beet mosaic virus, BWYV Beet western yellows virus, BVA Blueberry virus A, BVBaV Blackberry vein banding-associated virus, BVE Blackberry virus E, BVY Blackberry virus Y, BYMV Bean yellow mosaic virus, BYSV Beet yellow stunt virus, BYV Beet yellows virus, BYVaV Blackberry yellow vein-associated virus, CABYV Cucurbit aphid‐borne yellows virus, CarMV Carnation mottle carmovirus, CCYV Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, CDVd Citrus dwarfing viroid, CGRMV Cherry green ring mottle virus, CNRMV Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus, CoV-1 Cordyline virus 1, CoV-2 Cordyline virus 2, CoV-3 Cordyline virus 3, CoV-4 Cordyline virus 4, CMoV Carrot mottle virus, CNFV Carnation necrotic fleck virus, CtRLV Carrot red leaf virus, CtRLVaRNA Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA, CTV Citrus tristeza virus, CVA Cherry virus A, CVB Chrysanthemum virus B, CYLV Carrot yellow leaf virus, CYSDV Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, DMV Dioscorea mosaic virus, DVCV Diodia vein chlorosis virus, GLRaV-1 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1, GLRaV-2 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2, GLRaV-4 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4, GLRaV-5 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 5, GLRaV-7 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7, GLRaV-9 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 9, GLRaV-13 Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 13, GLRaV-Cn Grapevine leafroll-associated Carnelian virus, GRSPaV Grapevine Rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, GVA Grapevine virus A, GVB Grapevine virus B, INSV Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus, LChV Lettuce cholorosis virus, LChV1 Little cherry virus 1, LChV2 Little cherry virus 2, LIYV Lettuce infectious yellows virus, MV-1 Mint virus 1, MV-2 Mint virus-2, MVBaV Mint vein banding-associated virus, MVX Mint virus X, OLYaV Olive leaf yellowing associated virus, PBNSPaV Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus, PeVB Persimmon virus B, PMWaV-1 Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 1, PMWaV-2 Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 2, PMWaV-3 Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 3, PNRSV Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, PVY Potato virus Y, PYFV Parsnip yellow fleck virus, PYVV Potato yellow vein virus, PZSV Pelargonium zonate spot virus, RLMV Raspberry leaf mottle virus, RLRaV Rose leaf rosette-associated virus, RLSV Raspberry leaf spot virus, RMoV Raspberry mottle virus, RpLV Raspberry latent virus, RYNV Rubus yellow net virus, SCFaV Strawberry chlorotic fleck-associated virus, SLRSV Strawberry latent ringspot virus, SPaV Strawberry pallidosis associated virus, SPCSV Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus, SPFMV Sweet potato feathery mottle virus, SPMSV Sweet potato mild speckling potyvirus, SPMMV Sweet potato mild mottle ipomovirus, TAV Tomato aspermy virus, TICV Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, ToCV Tomato chlorosis virus, ToSRV Tomato severe rugose virus, TMV Tobacco mosaic viruses, TRSV Tobacco ringspot virus, TSV Tobacco streak virus, TSWV Tomato spotted wilt virus, TV1 Tobacco virus 1, TVBMV Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus, TVCV Tetterwort vein chlorosis virus, TYLCV Tomato yellow leaf curl virus