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Table 1 Sphingolipid profiles in plants upon treatment with pathogens, defense hormones, or sphinganine-analog mycotoxins

From: Sphingolipids in plant immunity

Treatment Species Outcome References
P. syringae, or P. syringae avrRpm1 Arabidopsis High levels of LCBs, LCBs-P, and Cers (Peer et al. 2010; Magnin-Robert et al. 2015)
B. cinerea Arabidopsis High levels of LCBs, LCBs-P, Cers and hCers (Bi et al. 2014; Magnin-Robert et al. 2015; Zeng et al. 2021)
X. campestris Brassica oleracea A significant reduction in N-palmitoylsphinganine (Tortosa et al. 2018)
V. dahliae Cotton Disruption of SL homeostasis, increased GIPC contents (Xu et al. 2022)
SA or BTH Arabidopsis Subtle changes in the SL profile (Simanshu et al. 2014; Shi et al. 2015; Huang et al. 2019; Zeng et al. 2021)
ET Arabidopsis Subtle changes in the SL profile (Wu et al. 2015a)
MeJA Arabidopsis Subtle changes in the SL profile (Huang et al. 2021)
BRs Olive Low levels of LCBs (Corbacho et al. 2018)
ABA Arabidopsis High levels of LCB-Ps (Guo et al. 2012)
FB1 Arabidopsis Disruption of sphingolipid homeostasis, sharp increase in LCB contents (Shi et al. 2007; Markham et al. 2011; Saucedo-Garcia et al. 2011; Kimberlin et al. 2013, 2016; Wu et al. 2015b; Shao et al. 2019; Zeng et al. 2022)
AAL-toxin, or FB1 Tomato, duckweed, tobacco callus, maize, banana, or cotton Disruption of SL homeostasis, sharp increase in LCB contents (Abbas et al. 1994; Shao et al. 2019; Gutierrez-Najera et al. 2020; Chen et al. 2021; Xie et al. 2021; Xu et al. 2022)
  1. P. syringae, Pseudomonas syringae; B. cinerea, Botrytis cinerea; X. campestris, Xanthomonas campestris; V. dahliae, Verticillium dahliae; SA, salicylic acid; ET, ethylene; MeJA, methyl jasmonate; BRs, brassinosteroids; ABA, abscisic acid; FB1, fumonisin B1; SL, sphingolipid; LCBs, long-chain bases; Cers, ceramides; hCers, hydroxyceramide