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Table 3 Sphingolipid metabolism-related proteins involved in plant immunity

From: Sphingolipids in plant immunity

Protein Experimental condition Immune response Mechanisms References
AtLCB2b Expression of AtFBR41 in tomato A. alternata (R) AAL-toxin resistance (Shao et al. 2019)
NbLCB1 VIGS of NbLCB1 P. cichoriiis (S) Cell death (Takahashi et al. 2009)
NbLCB2 VIGS of NbLCB2 P. cichoriiis (S), A. alternata (S) Cell death, SA (Takahashi et al. 2009; Rivas-San Vicente et al. 2013)
  NbLCB2 OE P. cichoriiis (R) Cell death (Takahashi et al. 2009)
BcLCB2 Expression of BcLCB2 in Nicotiana tabacum R. solanacearum (R) Cell death (Gan et al. 2009)
OsLCB2a1 OsLCB2a1 OE M. persicae (R) Callose, wax, SA (Begum et al. 2016)
AtORM1/2 orm1 amiR-ORM2, ORM1 RNAi, ORM2 RNAi, and orm1 or orm2 P. syringae (R), enhanced ROS response to flg22 SA, degradation of FLS2 by selective autophagy (Li et al. 2016; Yang et al. 2019a)
  ORM1 OE and ORM2 OE P. syringae (S), reduced ROS response to flg22   
AtLCBK1 lcbk1-2, lcbk1-3 P. syringae (S), reduced stomata response to flg22, or SA Induction of stomatal closure by t18:0-P, and crosstalk with SA (Gupta and Nandi 2020; Gupta et al. 2020)
AtSPHK1 sphk1-2, SPHK1-KD No treatment Callose (Iswanto et al. 2020)
AtSPHK1 Expression of AtSPHK1 in tobacco BY-2 cells Proteinaceous elicitor cryptogein (R) ROS (Coursol et al. 2015)
AtDPL1 dpl1 P. syringae and P. syringae avrRPM1 (S), and B. cinerea (R) Cell death, SA, JA (Magnin-Robert et al. 2015)
OsSPL1 OsSPL1-OE P. syringae (S) PR genes (Zhang et al. 2014)
AtSLD1/2 sld1 sld2 P. syringae (R), and V. dahlia (R) Callose (Ning-Jing et al. 2019)
AtLOH1 loh1-2 Cytotoxins NLP proteins (R) GIPCs as receptors of NLPs (Lenarčič et al. 2017)
AtLOH1/2/3 LOH1/2/3 OE No treatment SA (Luttgeharm et al. 2015)
AtFAH1/2 fah1/fah2, fah1c (CRISPR/Cas9-based mutant) fah2 P. syringae (R), G. cichoracearum (R), cytotoxins NLP proteins (R), reduced long-term ROS response to rhamnolipids, reduced ROS response to flg22 and chitin GIPCs as receptors of NLPs, PTI (Konig et al. 2012; Lenarčič et al. 2017; Schellenberger et al. 2021; Ukawa et al. 2022)
OsFAH1/2 OsFAH1/2-KD M. oryzae (S) PTI (Nagano et al. 2016)
PpS4H s4h No treatment Callose (Gomann et al. 2021)
AtACD5 acd5 P. syringae (S), B. cinerea (S), G. cichoracearum UCSC1 (R) SA, ROS, cell death (Greenberg et al. 2000; Wang et al. 2008; Bi et al. 2014)
AtACD11 acd11, VIGS of AtACD11 P. capsici (R) SA, ROS, cell death (Brodersen et al. 2002; Li et al. 2019)
AtACER acer-1 and amiR-ACER-1 P. syringae (S), reduced ROS response to flg22 PTI signaling (Wu et al. 2015b)
AtNCER1 ncer1 No treatment JA (Zienkiewicz et al. 2019)
AtNCER2 ncer2 No treatment SA (Zienkiewicz et al. 2019)
AtIPCS2 erh1 G. cichoracearum (R), P. syringae (S) Cell death, SA (Wang et al. 2008)
AtGONST1 gonst1-2 No treatment SA, ROS, cell death, cellulose (Mortimer et al. 2013)
AtGONST2 gonst2-1 G. orontii (R), B. cinerea (S) SA, ROS, cell death, cellulose (Jing et al. 2021)
IPUT1 pLAT52:IPUT1 iput1/iput1 No treatment SA, ROS, cell death Tartaglio et al. 2017)
AtGMT1 gmt1-1, gmt1-3 No treatment SA, ROS, cell death (Fang et al. 2016)
AtGCS gcs-2 No treatment Callose (Iswanto et al. 2020)
  1. R, resistant; S, sensitive; KD, knockdown; OE, overexpressing line; At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Os, Oryza sativa; Bc, Brassica campestris; Pp: Physcomitrium patens; P. syringae, Pseudomonas syringae; B. cinerea, Botrytis cinerea; A. alternata, Alternaria alternata; F. verticillioides, Fusarium verticillioides; V. dahlia, Verticillium dahlia; G. orontii, Golovinomyces orontii; G. cichoracearum, Golovinomyces cichoracearum; M. oryzae, Magnaporthe oryzae; M. persicae, Myzus persicae; P. capsica, Phytophthora capsici; R. solanacearum, Ralstonia solanacearum; M. sexta, Manduca sexta; SPT, serine palmitoyltransferase; LCB, long-chain base; LCB-P, long-chain base-phosphate; Cer, ceramide; hCer, hydroxyceramide; SA, salicylic acid; ROS, reactive oxygen species; LCB2b, subunit of SPT; LCB2, subunit of SPT; LCB2a1, subunit of SPT; ORM1/2, orosomucoid-like proteins; LCBK1, LCB kinase; SPHK1, sphingosine kinase; DPL1, dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate lyase1; SPL1, sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase; SLD1/2, sphingoid LCB desaturase; LOH1, ceramide synthase; FAH1/2, fatty acid alphahydroxylase; S4H, LCB C-4 hydroxylase; ACD5, ceramide kinase; ACD11, ceramide-P transporter; ACER, alkaline ceramidase; IPCS2, inositol phosphorylceramide synthase 2; GONST1/2, Golgi nucleotide sugar transporter; IPUT1, inositol phosphorylceramide glucuronosyltransferase; GMT1, GIPC mannosyl-transferase; GINT1, GIPC transferase; GCS, glucosylceramide synthase