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Table 2 Exogenous treatments of sphingolipids or sphingolipid metabolism inhibitors affecting plant cell death and immunity

From: Sphingolipids in plant immunity

Treatment and concentration Samples Response References
d18:0, d18:1, t18:0, or d17:1 (0.3–100 μM) Arabidopsis leaves, seedlings ROS, cell death, expression of defense genes (Shi et al. 2007; Peer et al. 2011; Saucedo-Garcia et al. 2011; Glenz et al. 2019; Zeng et al. 2022)
d18:0, d18:1, or t18:0 (10–50 μM) Tobacco leaves, seedlings, BY-2 cells Calcium increase, ROS, cell death, expression of defense genes (Takahashi et al. 2009; Lachaud et al. 2010; Lachaud et al. 2011; Rivas-San Vicente et al. 2013)
t18:0 (2–25 μM) Arabidopsis plants, cells Calcium-dependent cell death, callose deposition, resistance of plants to P. syringae and aphids (Lachaud et al. 2013; Begum et al. 2016; Liu et al. 2020a)
d18:0, or t18:0-P (100 μM) Arabidopsis leaves Effects on the response to P. syringae or B. cinerea (Magnin-Robert et al. 2015)
t18:0 (1 μM) Tobacco leaves ROS, cell death, resistance of plants to Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Seo et al. 2021)
t18:0-P (10 μM) Arabidopsis leaves PTI- and SA-induced stomatal closure (Gupta et al. 2020a, b)
d18:0, d18:1, t18:0, d18:0-P, or d18:1-P (20 μM); t18:0-P (40 μM); DMS or SKi (5–25 μM) Tobacco BY-2 cells Effects on cryptogein-induced ROS in cells (Coursol et al. 2015)
C2 Cer (30–50 μM), C6 Cer (100 μM), or C2 Cer-P (10 μM) Arabidopsis, rice protoplasts Cer induces ROS-, calcium-, caspase-, and mitochondrial membrane potential-associated cell death; Cer-P rescues Cer-induced cell death (Liang et al. 2003; Yao et al. 2004; Bi et al. 2014; Zhang et al. 2020)
GIPCs (100 μg/mL) Arabidopsis leaves Enhanced EV secretion and flg22-induced ROS (Liu et al. 2020a)
FB1 (0.3–50 μM) Various plants Multiple defense responses, e.g., ROS, cell death, SA, JA, ET, calcium, extracellular ATP deletion, vacuolar membrane disruption, MAPK (Zeng et al. 2020; Iqbal et al. 2021)
C2 Cer (20 μM), or FB1 (7 μM) Tobacco protoplasts Potassium loss-associated cell death (Peters and Chin 2007)
Myriocin (0.1 μM), FB1 (5 μM), PDMP (50 μM), D609 (100 μM), or DMS (30 μM) Arabidopsis seedlings Effects on callose levels (Iswanto et al. 2020)
  1. LCB, long-chain base; LCB-P, long-chain base-phosphate; Cer, ceramide; Cer-P, ceramide-phosphate; SA, salicylic acid; ROS, reactive oxygen species; myriocin, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase; FB1, Fumonisin B1, an inhibitor of ceramide synthase; PDMP, DL-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol hydrochloride, an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase; D609, tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase; DMS, D-erythroN,N-dimethylsphingosine, an inhibitor of LCB kinase; SKi, 2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl)thiazole, an inhibitor of sphingosine kinase